Leslie Van Houten, Manson Family member, recommended for parole

(CNN)After 19 denials, Manson Family member Leslie Van Houten is a step closer to being free, after a parole board panel recommended her release, a spokesman for the California department of corrections said Thursday.

The full Board of Parole Hearings will review the decision during the next four months, then could send the case to California Gov. Jerry Brown, according to corrections spokesman Luis Patino.
    “I went in and Mrs. LaBianca was laying on the floor and I stabbed her,” said Van Houten, who was 19 at the time of the murders. “In the lower back, around 16 times.”
    Van Houten reportedly has apologized to the LaBianca family.
    She was not directly involved in the killings of five people at the home of film director Roman Polanski, near Hollywood. Among the victims that night was Polanski’s pregnant wife, actress Sharon Tate.
    Van Houten, 66, was convicted of being involved in the conspiracy of those killings and for the murders of the LaBiancas the next night.
    She has been described as a model prisoner who worked with other inmates and who earned a college degree.

    What happened to the rest of the Manson family

    Charles Manson — The 81-year-old remains at a California state prison in Corcoran. He, like Van Houten, had received the death penalty, but his sentence was commuted to life in prison.
    Charles “Tex” Watson — He, along with Van Houten, Susan Atkins and Patricia Krenwinkel, murdered the LaBiancas. At age 70, Watson remains at Mule Creek State Prison. He has been denied parole 16 times.
    Susan “Sadie” Denise Atkins — She was implicated in the Tate and LaBianca murders. She died in prison in 2009.
    Patricia Krenwinkel — She also had her death penalty commuted. The 68-year-old remains at the California Institution for Women. She has been denied parole 13 times.
    Bobby Beausoleil — He was convicted of the murder of Gary Hinman. He is serving a life sentence and currently at a Vacaville, California, medical facility.
    Bruce Davis — He was convicted of the murders of Gary Hinman and stuntman Donald “Shorty” Shea. He is serving a life sentence and had his parole reversed by Gov. Brown in 2014.
    Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme — She was convicted in 1975 of pointing a gun at then-President Gerald Ford. She was sentenced to life in prison and was released on parole after serving 34 years in 2009.
    Steven “Clem” Grogan — He was released on parole after revealing the location of the body of ranch-hand Donald “Shorty” Shea, who was killed in 1969.

    Read more: www.cnn.com

    Disappearance of Michigan mom leaves household in tears

    Police are searching for a Michigan mother who disappeared without a tracing five days ago.

    Ashley Bolter works with her mom, Julia, at Tribar Manufacturing in Howell, Michigan. She told Fox 2 the two were at work Friday when she asked me if Id be mad at her if she was to leave, said Ashley. That was earlier in the day and I said , no, if you need to, go home.

    Julia was last seen leaving work around noon in a red Chevrolet with Michigan license plate DSL5 847.


    The family said the missing mom had been under stress and was out of kinds the working day she left, but was supposedly heading straight home.

    Her husband, Michael Bolter, had a heartfelt message for his wife. Through tears, he told Fox 2: I just wish I would have listened to her more about how she was treated at work So sorry, Julia, I love you.

    Julia had a history of depression. Recently, she was heavily to participate in the planning of her two daughters weddings before she disappeared.

    Shes done a lot for the wedding. She was happy about painting the chairs we did last weekend, we went out for the Fourth of July, said Michael.

    The family fears something bad happened to her. Their calls to her have been going straight to voicemail.

    Were supposed to go get a dress for her to be in my wedding, said Ashley. This is not right, something feels off.


    She is everything to me, said Ashley. Thats my mother. Shes everything to all of us. She helped me, she helped everybody. She was always there.

    The Livingston County Sheriffs deputies are analyse the disappearance.

    More from Fox 2 Detroit .

    Read more: www.foxnews.com

    Nicholas Hoult will follow in David Bowie’s footsteps and play Nikolai Tesla on the big screen

    Superheroes collide, as X-Men’s Beast is joining Doctor Strange in the Weinstein Company’s energy drama .
    Image: Stefania D’Alessandro/ WireImage

    The Weinstein Company’s electricity drama The Current War received a jolt of star power on Tuesday, as Nicholas Hoult is nearing a deal to play Nikolai Tesla in the film, Mashable has confirmed.

    Benedict Cumberbatch and Michael Shannon star as Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse, who famously feuded over electricity in the late 1880 s.

    Edison argued for direct current( DC ), while Westinghouse supported alternative current( AC ), which had more backing at the time.

    Tesla was the famous Serbian engineer who worked for both Edison and Westinghouse. He was previously portrayed onscreen by none other than David Bowie in Christopher Nolan’s The Prestige .

    Alfonso Gomez-Rejon ( Me and Earl and the Dying Girl) is directing the period cinema, which was written by Michael Mitnick.

    Hoult, who plays Beast in the X-Men franchise and recently co-starred in Mad Max: Fury Road , will soon be seen as J.D. Salinger in the indie drama Rebel in the Rye . He has also wrap the war movie Sand Castle and the action-thriller Collide .

    [ H/ T TheWrap ]

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    The Techies Running For Congress Walk a Fine Line

    Brian Forde shouts over the din of the crowd packed inside a coworking space on a November evening in Irvine, California.

    “Hello! Hello! Hello! Thank you all so much for coming out,” he yells as he takes the stage.

    It’s been exactly one week since Democrats pulled off upset wins in states across the country on election night in 2017, and Forde, dressed in a slim-fitting suit and button down shirt, looks the part of the fresh-faced, first time congressional candidate these energized donors have come to see.

    As soon as they quiet down, Forde instructs the roughly 100 people staring back at him to take out their phones. “We’re livestreaming this on Facebook right now. Hellooooo Facebook,” he says, waving at the camera to his right. He then asks the group to search for his Facebook page—Brian Forde for Congress—and share the stream with their friends and followers. Some are taking longer than others.

    “Scroll down a little bit,” he urges, guiding them through each step. Then, with a smile: “There I am. See?”

    Former President Barack Obama and Brian Forde
    Pete Souza

    It's fitting that Forde would lead off with, essentially, a technology tutorial. The 37-year-old Democrat (and former Republican) only recently returned here to his hometown in California’s 45th congressional district after serving for a year as director of a digital currency initiative at MIT Media Lab. Before that, he worked as a senior advisor to President Barack Obama in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. And before that, he founded a Skype-like phone service to lower the cost of phone calls for people in Nicaragua. In a YouTube video that features prominently on his campaign website, Forde traces his career back to the first motherboard he ever dissected.

    'Regulation being driven by legislators who don't even understand the internet is a bad idea.'

    Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales

    Forde’s intimate understanding of the tech industry isn’t just window dressing for his campaign. It’s the foundation. It’s why, for instance, he’s invited Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales to deliver a talk on fake news at that evening's fundraiser. Wales and other tech titans, including Netflix CEO Reed Hastings, billionaire venture capitalist Chris Sacca, and former chief technology officer of the United States Todd Park, are just a few of Forde’s well-heeled industry supporters. This week, Forde's campaign announced that for the second quarter in a row, he has raised more money than every candidate in the district, including Republican incumbent Rep. Mimi Walters.

    If a tech backlash exists, Forde isn’t feeling it. Or at least, he's not fearing it. “Look at drones, self-driving vehicles, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Crispr, artificial intelligence,” Forde tells me, months after the fundraiser. “Every industry is affected by tech, and yet we’re missing the knowledge and expertise in Congress to understand that and see around the corner and be proactive, not reactive.”

    His influential backers tend to agree. "Regulation being driven by legislators who don't even understand the internet is a bad idea," Wales says.

    The complex and increasingly dangerous role technology plays in democracy, Forde believes, provides all the more motivation for people like him to run for office. And this year, many of them are. In states from Massachusetts to Michigan to Virginia to, of course, California, startup founders, developers, and tech investors are making a play for the 2018 midterms. One PAC called 314 Action has called on scientists and technologists to run for office; it received 7,000 messages from people announcing their intention to run in the near future.

    It helps, too, that the largely liberal tech industry has been among the top donors to Democrats in recent years. Individual tech leaders, including LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman, have already begun funding a slate of Congressional candidates in preparation for November.

    And yet some candidates emphasize their tech credentials at their own peril. Just a few months ago, Congress dragged Twitter, Facebook, and Google in to answer for the Russian trolls that ran amok on their platforms during the 2016 election; some have likened it to tech's big tobacco moment. And a general unease has set in around the industry's overabundant power.

    It's a bipartisan skepticism. Those on the far right, led by fringe group Project Veritas, suspect that Twitter and others have liberal bias powering their algorithms. Supporters of Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, have accused tech companies of getting too cozy with the Trump campaign, after learning tech companies embedded staff with the Republican candidate's digital team. For many, Big Tech has bred distrust—not an ideal quality for a political candidate.

    'Someone who understands tech running for office with the intention of fixing those things, to me that’s very patriotic.'

    Congressional Candidate Brianna Wu

    "People are absolutely correct to be suspicious of Silicon Valley at this point," says Brianna Wu, a game developer and a central target of the mass harassment campaign against women in the industry known as GamerGate. Wu, who is running in Massachusetts' 8th district against Democratic incumbent Stephen Lynch, has emerged from that experience as one of the industry's chief critics. But, she says, "Someone who understands tech running for office with the intention of fixing those things, to me that’s very patriotic."

    According to Republican representative Will Hurd of Texas, who has a degree in computer science and founded a cybersecurity company before running for office, it's not that Congress doesn't care about tech-focused issues. It's just that very few of the lawyers and career politicians that populate the House and the Senate can engage in sophisticated conversations about issues like cybersecurity and social media disinformation. "Whether there’s a tech backlash or not, we’re moving in an increasingly connected world and have to be prepared for that," Hurd says. "The more technologists we have, we can begin talking about higher level questions about the future, rather than where we are now."

    On election night, 2016, Suneel Gupta and his wife, tech journalist Leena Rao, sat in their home in San Francisco, where Gupta's suitcase was already packed. As a tech advisor on Clinton's transition team, he had scheduled a meeting with then-Labor Secretary Tom Perez the next day to discuss the new administration's tech strategy going forward. Gupta, who sold his healthcare app Rise in 2016, had started his career as an intern in the first Clinton White House, and looked forward to shaping the second one. He never got the chance.

    That night, watching the results roll in, Gupta says he decided he wanted to move back to the Michigan town where he spent 28 of his 38 years, and run for office. Among the first people he asked for advice was Hoffman, who had backed Gupta's business in the past. "That was the first time he got out from behind his desk and walked around and gave me a big bear hug," Gupta remembers.

    "Congress certainly has its challenges, and it’s estimable of him to charge ahead at improving our country," Hoffman says. "I call this, as I did with him, 'jumping on the public service grenade.'"

    But unlike Forde and Wu, Gupta is running in a district that Trump won, in a part of the country that has suffered economically while watching coastal tech epicenters amass unprecedented amounts of wealth. That makes the task of accentuating his experience in tech, without alienating voters who associate the industry with liberal elitism, tricky. "You have to be strategic about how you talk about yourself," Gupta acknowledged at a recent fundraiser of about a dozen supporters, held at the LGBT Community Center in Manhattan. "If I'd gone out there and said, 'Hey I’m this guy who understands tech, and I want to bring that here to the region,' I don't think I would win this election."

    In just the few short months since he's been back, the differences between San Francisco and suburban Detroit have been evident. Gupta, who is Indian, has had voters say they wish his name was Neil, not Suneel, or tell him straight-faced that "a brown guy can’t take this district."

    "It’s pretty funny because in San Francisco, they're so politically correct," Gupta told the group at the fundraiser.

    'Tech for me was an incredible learning experience. I got to learn how to be a small business owner, how to balance a budget, how to create jobs.'

    Congressional Candidate Suneel Gupta

    His central challenge has been convincing voters that despite his detour out west, he's still part of the community and understands what they've been through. And in a lot of ways, he does. Where Forde's stump speech touches on topics like the Equifax hack, the abuse of predictive algorithms in the criminal justice system, and Volkswagen using software to cheat on emissions standards, Gupta's focuses on his parents, both of whom worked at Ford for 30 years.

    His mother, who came to this country as a refugee, was the company's first female engineer. Then, in a single day in April 2001, both his parents got laid off. Gupta's first campaign video centers on his parents' story, with the candidate posing beside a waist-high stack of papers that supposedly contain the North American Free Trade Agreement, which is often blamed for sending these and other manufacturing jobs overseas. It's all a little Trumpian, but Gupta hopes it's a message voters in this area will identify with, while also staying true to his own story.

    "Saying I'm the tech guy who has all the answers to your problems is not true, and that’s not what people here need to know about me," Gupta tells me. "I'm part of an auto family that lost their jobs. Tech for me was an incredible learning experience. I got to learn how to be a small business owner, how to balance a budget, how to create jobs. That’s the experience I'm bringing to my district."

    In Michigan, at least, Gupta won't be the only candidate evangelizing tech jobs. One of his primary challengers, Haley Stevens, most recently worked at the Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute in Chicago and has been pushing an agenda based on bringing more advanced manufacturing jobs to the area.

    This message about jobs was also central to Democrat representative Ro Khanna's successful run for Congress in 2016, albeit in a very different part of the country: California's 17th congressional district, which covers Silicon Valley. But he says in his first few months in office, he's seen his colleagues in states like Kentucky and Ohio prioritize tech as critical to creating new jobs.

    "I'm all for technologists running for Congress," Khanna says, "but I think what’s more important is for every person in Congress to think that having some tech literacy and technology proficiency is important."

    Still, Gupta, Wu, and Forde all maintain they're not running as cheerleaders of the industry. They're running because the industry has amassed a new and unprecedented kind of power that elected leaders in Washington haven't quite figured out how to handle.

    That's why instead of hosting a rally for his campaign in November, Forde asked Wales to host a forum on fake news, a central challenge to US democracy. And it's why, when he took the stage that night, he made sure everyone in the room shared Wales' words with their friends on Facebook. As Forde told the audience that night, "This issue is too important for just us in the room."

    They're Running

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    As campus carry becomes Texas law, memories of UT Tower massacre linger

    Monday marks 50 years since the first US mass shooting of the modern epoch. It also brings a controversial gun law to campuses across the Lone Star State

    It was 1 August 1966, and Gary Lavergne was a 10 -year-old boy in Church Point, Louisiana. His household did not have much, but they had a television. When his father, the local chief of police, came home after work they watched the evening news on CBS.

    The anchor, Walter Cronkite, pertained the big tale of the day: a human had climbed the famous tower at the core of the University of Texas campus in Austin and shot passersby with a rifle. The act felt shocking in its scale and its originality.

    That nut is depicting everybody whats possible and were going to see a lot more of this, Lavergne remembered his father saying.

    Ill never forget the style he said that, he added. And Ill be danged if he wasnt right.

    Charles Whitman killed 17 people, including an unborn child, and injured more than 30. The UT Tower massacre was the first mass shooting on a US college campus.

    At a period when television news was expanding in reach and cultural influence and melding important moments into shared national experiences, it was arguably mainstream Americas introduction to a now familiar type of crime: an armed individual inflicting tremendous and unexpected violence at a locating whose name would come to be used as shorthand for tragedy.

    Lavergne wrote a thorough account of Whitmans slayings, A Sniper in the Tower, in 1997. Today he works in the universitys admissions research department and its term of office is on the ground floor of the tower.

    It was kind of an introduction to the concept that a person will do this and he doesnt dedicate a damn about whether hell live or die, he said. We werent used to that. People who committed crimes, you assume they wanted to get away. Well , not this guy. He ran up there and he knew he wasnt coming down alive.

    What we do find about the people who do these things is that theyre losers, and by that I mean theyre failures, even if only in their own intellect, and they decide they dont want to live any more but they dont want to commit suicide. They want to die in a big way, being in complete control and essentially doing the thing they can do better than everybody else, and in Whitmans case thats using a gun.

    A diligent and intelligent student from Florida who at age 12 was said to be the worlds youngest Eagle Scout, Whitman was an exceptional marksman. He joined the US Marines aged 18, escaping his violent, oppressive father. In 1961, he was sent on a scholarship programme to the University of Texas but his behaviour became erratic and indisciplined. Despite being court-martialled for offences including lottery, he was honourably discharged from the marines in 1964 and returned to Austin to resume his analyzes. His parents separated, his mental health deteriorated and he fantasised to a psychiatrist about shooting people from the tower.

    On 1 August 50 years ago, a little after 11.30 am, the 25 -year-old took the elevator to the 27 th floor, then climbed the steps to the observation deck, 231 ft up, and enacted his horrific vision. He had killed his wife and his mother earlier that day, as well as three people inside the tower, one a 16 -year-old boy.

    As Lavergne writes, at about 11.45 am, Claire Wilson, an 18 -year-old student, and her boyfriend, Thomas Eckman, were strolling through a tree-lined part of the main quadrilateral into an open, concreted region below the tower that seems much the same now as it did then, save for last years removal of got a couple of statues.

    There was a pop sound and Wilson dropped to the ground. The precisely aimed 6mm bullet had rent through her womb, instantly killing the newborn boy she had carried for eight months. Eckman knelt down and asked what was wrong. A round entered his back and he fell down, dead, on his girlfriend. The body count rapidly grew as Whitman walked around the 360 -degree deck, picking targets.

    One was on the edge of the campus, a short walking from the middle of downtown Austin and the Texas statehouse and more than 500 yards from the tower. Crouching behind a Chevrolet as the spree continued, Lavergne writes, Roy Dell Schmidt stood up to say something like, Its OK, were out of range. Whitman shot him dead, through the abdomen. The last victim did not die until 2001, when David Gunby passed away aged 58 from complications related to a meander in his only functioning kidney.

    Wilson was seriously injured but survived. She is scheduled to speak on Monday, when the university dedicates a new memorial to the victims. The anniversary coincides with the implementation of a new and highly controversial statute passed by Texas Republican-dominated legislature that compels public universities, including the University of Texas, to allow licensed individuals aged 21 and over to carry concealed handguns in most campus buildings.

    It literally was a gun combat that went on

    Neal Spelce re-creates his broadcast, a few days after the carnage. Photograph: Spelce

    Proponents argue that the concealed carry law could aid in personal safety. Critics believe that more firearms on campus is a recipe for increased hazard and confusion. Lavergne said he was asked for his opinion on the issue by proponents from both sides but declined to take a public position.

    Still, he said, to believe that citizens responding to a crime in progress in 1966 is the same as responding to a crime in progress in 2016 I think is just foolish.

    Whitmans spree lasted 96 minutes before he was shot dead by police officers who arrived at the deck. It was more than enough time for civilians to arrive in pickup truck with their hunting rifles and to continue efforts to take him out from below.

    It literally was a gun combat that went on, people calling and screaming and dodging and ducking and running and hiding and sirens screaming, gunshots echoing through the buildings on the campus, said Neal Spelce, then a 30 -year-old local television reporter and anchor who broadcast live from the campus soon after the shooting started.

    There were no roadblocks or policemen to stop Spelce getting dangerously close to the action. Robert Heard, a reporter for the Associated Press, was shot but survived. An ambulance driver, Morris Hohmann, was hitting in the thigh and transported to hospital in his own emergency vehicle.

    Spelce said Whitman did most of his lethal damage in the first half-hour or so, before the nature of the event was fully clear. Once he was being shot at he had to keep low and had less is high time to take aim.

    The UT shootings, along with the Watts riots in Los Angeles of 1965, are often credited with inspiring the widespread introduction of Special Weapons And Tactics( Swat) divisions, enabling police departments to respond rapidly and effectively to serious threats.

    In 1966, campus security mainly consisted of aged security personnel who did little more than supervise parking. Now, in common with other large US academic institutions, the University of Texas has its own armed police department founded in 1968 and currently hiring 89 sworn officers, 43 of them patrol policemen. It was tested in 2010 when a 19 -year-old student began firing an AK-4 7 a short walk from the tower, before killing himself in the library.

    Everything went wrong for the Austin police department, said Lavergne. They didnt have the right clothing or uniforms, they didnt has every right to weapons, they didnt have the right communications gear, they didnt even have the right shoes. Nothing ran right. And so a bunch of citizens demonstrating up and firing at a sniper 230 ft up, well, that might have been helpful.

    Today, the Austin police department would be ready for something like this. They have a Swat team, they have armoured carriers, they have the proper weapons, they have the proper training and citizens demonstrating up and shooting back would probably get in the way. And everybody are at high risk when that happens.

    Authorities are also better prepared for the after-effects of misfortune. In April, when Haruka Weiser became the first person murdered on the Austin campus since the carnage, the university stepped up security and offered counselling.

    That didnt happen after a mass murder where 50 people were shot 50 years ago, but it happened after a single murder just a few months ago. Thats a big difference, Lavergne said. Our experience with all these other tragedies has taught us that you dont merely suck it up, you dont just go back to run and feign like it never happened. The people in 1966 were no less caring; the latter are good people, they just didnt know what to do.

    I dont think I used the word shooter

    News footage of the UT Tower massacre.

    That feeling of bewilderment extended to those reporting the carnage in what was then a quiet city with its own population of less than 220,000. Mass shootings does not already have their own lexicon.

    I dont suppose I used the word shooter. I didnt use the word lockdown, said Spelce, who described Whitman as an apparent madman during his hours-long live broadcast. I just made that conclusion trying to figure out who the heck would get up there and start shooting indiscriminately.

    As he spoke into a push-to-talk microphone tethered to a vehicle that he used for covering, his radio commentary was accompanied on television by a static shooting of the tower from an unwieldy camera that belonged to the universitys in-house station. A roaming crew rendered dramatic film that was used by the big three national networks in their nightly news bulletins.

    Spelce did not realise it at the time, but Whitman was listening to the live broadcast use a handheld transistor radio that he had taken up the tower.

    Afterwards you start thinking, Whoa, wait a minute. If I had known that he was listening to me, what could I have done? Spelce said. I answered that in my own intellect pretty easy candidly, I dont think it would have made a difference. For one thing, it was not a two-way communication. For another: The very act of him listening to me describe his rampage? Sick. I mean, thats a sick guy to begin with.

    Today the names of victims are often not made publicly available for hours, or even days. In 1966, Spelce devoted the go-ahead for a reporter at the hospital to read on air an early casualty list, in an attempt to soothe panicked Austinites, many of whom had connections to the university.

    My logic was[ it was] for “the worlds largest” good, he said. Telephone lines in Austin were jammed people could not get information.

    A newsroom colleague, Paul Bolton, cut in and asked for the list to be repeated. He had heard correctly the first time: his grandson was among the names.

    I live with that heartbreak to this day, Spelce said. I still think we did the right thing.

    Spelce suspects that one reason there were so many victims 50 years ago was that people strayed into threat and stood around because they did not have a consciousness of mass shootings that might have helped them speedily process what was taking place.

    This was not anything in anyones subconsciou, he said. Today, if you hear a automobile backfire in downtown, I ensure you youre going to see someone duck.

    Still, some details in reports seem remarkably familiar to a modern reader. Friends and neighbours expressed incredulity that such a nice, ordinary-seeming young man would be capable of an atrocity.

    A 7 August article in the New York Times headlined What Lessons in Texas Tragedy? opined: Whatever the motivation, it seems clear that the way is stimulated easier by the fact that handguns of all sorts are readily available to Americans of all shades of morality and mentality after President Kennedy was shot to death on a Dallas street in November 1963, there was a public clamour for stricter controls over the sale and use of pistols. But proposed amendments was stalled, in big component because of opponent from sportsmens groups and the National Rifle Association.

    Passed soon after the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert F Kennedy, the Gun Control Act of 1968 was signed into statute by President Lyndon B Johnson a Democrat who was born and raised near Austin. It was a limited compromise bill that restricted interstate weapons sales.

    We simply could not get the Congress to carry out the requests we made of them, Johnson said. I asked for the national enrollment of all handguns and the the licence of those who carry those firearms. For the fact of life is that there are over 160 million firearms in this country more handguns than households. If handguns are to be kept out of the hands of the criminal, out of the hands of the insane, and out of the hands of the irresponsible, then we just must have licensing. If the criminal with a firearm is to be tracked down promptly, then we must have registration in this country.

    The voices that blocked these safeguards were not the voices of an aroused nation. They were the voices of a powerful hall, a gun foyer, that has persisted for the moment in an electoral year.

    Far from snapping, theyre doing precisely the opposite

    As with any modern mass murder, there was great interest in the mental health of the killer. Whitman had complained of severe headaches in the weeks before the shootings. He was an amphetamine user and an autopsy disclosed he had a brain cancer, though whether it affected his decision-making is debatable. Lavergne does not believe that Whitman would have been found insane by a court as a result of his actions: he clearly knew the difference between right and incorrect and his decision-making before and during the carnage suggests careful calculation.

    A chilling conclusion is that Whitman and some of his successors may be too easily characterised as crazed when their actions were not motivated by madness but brutality. Far from snapping, theyre doing exactly the opposite, Lavergne said last Wednesday, standing at the spot where Wilson and Eckman were hit. Far from losing control, theyre taking control. The ultimate control, because in that moment in time theyre choosing who will live and who will die.

    America did not suffer a deadlier mass shooting than Whitmans until 1984, when James Huberty killed 21 people in a McDonalds in California.

    A lone wolf individual killing innocent people for no apparent reason shocked everybody, said Jeffrey Simon, writer of Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat and a visiting lecturer at the University of California, Los Angeles. But there wasnt a wave and a rash of similar events. In that sense its different from today, where each mass shooting seems to be followed by more mass shootings whether or not each individual is inspired by what they have assured before.

    The UT Tower massacre did, however, promote their own nationals mood of unease: a knowledge that to live in America is to live with the risk, however tiny, that one ordinary day you might be lunged into a scene of carnage that, after Austin, Columbine, Virginia Tech, Newtown, Charleston, Orlando and the rest, can no longer truthfully be described as unimaginable.

    The towers observation deck will be closed on Monday. It reopened to visitors a couple of months after the murder but shut in 1974 following four suicides in six years. With new safety and security measures, it was opened again on 15 September 1999.

    The Tower has become the most powerful emblem of higher education in Texas, and we are proud to share it fully once again, Larry Faulkner, then university chairman, said in a speech. This optimistic narrative of renewal would be overshadowed by events 190 miles north.

    Later that day, Larry Gene Ashbrook, a 47 -year-old whose life had spiralled into bitterness and indignation, walked into a concert for teens at a Baptist church in Fort Worth. He was carrying two handguns and a pipe bomb. He shot dead seven people and injured seven more, then sat in a pew, put a handgun to his head and pulled the trigger.

    Read more: www.theguardian.com

    Hampton Creek Rally Employees Around Unicorn Startup Valuation

    Josh Tetrick offered employees of his food startup Hampton Creek Inc. a morale boost by telling them that the company is about to reach coveted unicorn status. The co-founder and chief executive officer told personnel that its finalizing a funding round valuing the Just Mayo maker at $1.1 billion, placing it among a group of venture-backed unicorn startups with valuations of at least$ 1 billion.

    Tetrick told employees on Friday that a German media group will join a roster of investors from Asia and the U.K ., as well as a higher net wealth person in Silicon Valley, according to a person who attended the meeting. Tetrick also said Hampton Creek had raised a previously unreported funding round of a little bit over $100 million, which valued the business at $750 million, said the person, who asked not to be named for fear of reprisal.

    Tetrick didnt specify how much money the company is looking to raise in the upcoming round, the person said. Hampton Creek was seeking about $200 million from investors earlier this year valuing the business at $1.1 billion, people familiar with the matter told Bloomberg in May.

    Im confident that its going to get done, Tetrick said at the gathering on Friday in its San Francisco headquarters, according to a transcript provided by the person in attendance. That get onto done could happen, really, any time in the next 48 hours or the next 21 days.

    Hampton Creek declined to comment, as did German media companies Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat. 1 Media SE.

    Tetrick, 36, started Hampton Creek in 2011, pitching it as a food-tech innovator able to analyze plant proteins to devise new consumer products. The startup convinced top Silicon Valley venture capitalists Khosla Ventures and Founders Fund to buy in, along with billionaires including Hong Kongs Li Ka-shing and Yahoo! s Jerry Yang. The last reported financing was a $90 million share marketing in 2014, which Tetrick told employees last week had valued the company at $190 million.

    If Hampton Creek does achieve unicorn status just five years after its founding, the event would demonstrate Tetricks ability to successfully marketplace Hampton Creek as a technology company, rather than a more gravity-bound consumer products business. Like most venture-backed tech startups with valuations of at the least$ 1 billion, Hampton Creek is losing money. It forecast a loss of $63 million this year, according to financial documents reviewed by Bloomberg in May.

    Hampton Creek took some unconventional steps as it grew. Starting as early as 2014, it paid contractors to buy up large quantities of the companys own products from supermarkets across the U.S ., which attained them appear more popular than they genuinely were, Bloomberg reported this month. Some workers were also directed to call store directors pretending to be customers to stoked demand for Just Mayo, e-mails depict. Hampton Creek said the buys were principally for quality assurance and represented less than 0.12 percentage of the companys marketings. Documents considered by Bloomberg reveal Hampton Creek bought hundreds of jars separately from the quality-control program with the purpose of helping boost sales.

    At the session last week, employees peppered Tetrick with questions about the buyback program and asked why the fundraising process was taking so long. The CEO sought to ease their concerns. He said he expected the board of directors would pass a resolution by Tuesday that would give him more autonomy to running the business more efficiently. One instance he dedicated was that management would no longer need the boards approving to hire an executive earning $250,000 a year, said the person who attended the meeting.

    While Tetrick told faculty that Hampton Creek has $90 million in the bank, he said he expects the company to burn through $75 million by the end of next year. In addition to collecting cash from investors in the next month, Tetrick said Hampton Creek will likely procured a credit facility by the end of 2017. He said the company is hoping to break even on cash flow by the fourth quarter of next year.

    However, Tetrick exhorted employees to clamp down on spending and avoid hiring too quickly.

    Its very easy to have millions of dollars in a bank account and then not, Tetrick told employees. It virtually happened with Tesla. It virtually happened with Facebook. It happens to lots of companies all the time.

    Read more: www.bloomberg.com

    24 hours in a Detroit ER: on the frontline of America’s healthcare debate

    Henry Ford hospital is one of the busiest in Michigan, and with many patients on Medicare and Medicaid it stands to be impacted greatly by an Obamacare repeal. As the debate rages, one doctor remains the calm at the center of the storm

    Its Monday, generally the busiest day for any ER, but at Henry Ford hospital in Detroit, its biblical. Patients lie in beds lined up along soft hallways with harsh light, and the doctors have what they call a campfire going, a ring of moaning patients huddled in beds around a central dispatch area. An alarm sounds, and Dr Gerard Martin has two minutes to prepare. He doesnt yet know what tragedy will arrive by ambulance into the resuscitation bay, but he knows its a matter of life or death.

    The doctor and the patient arrive at the recess room at the same time: Martin in a white lab coat with a rapid energy devoid of panic, and the patient naked and unresponsive. One of two resuscitation bays where the most severe cases are taken, the room is all stainless steel and focused dynamism. Fourteen medical professionals swirl the room, unwrapping plastic packages and holding needles while paramedics perform CPR. Two nurses ready a yellow and black machine that looks like a drill press with an oversized button where the chuck would be.

    We call that the thumper, Martin winks before guiding a resident who is threading a needle into the flesh near the patients collarbone. The thumper is an automated CPR machine, manufactured in Michigan. A tech attaches it around the mans body. The piston compresses his chest with a pneumatic sound and a click, like one of the stamping machines in Detroits long-gone factories.

    The patients belly fat roils, his ribs break. Five minutes. Another resident squirts blood into a pan. Ten minutes. The patients son is escorted from the room. Twenty minutes. The ambulance asks for its stretcher back.

    Time of death: 7.26pm, heart attack.

    Dr Gerald Martin asks questions of a patient who had complaints of chest pains and breathing problems. Photograph: Bryan Mitchell for the Guardian

    Detroit is one of Americas most violent and impoverished cities, and Martin has spent nearly 30 years on the spear-tip of the health crisis in a violent and ill country.

    From crack (not as big a problem now as in the 1980s) to gunshot wounds (fairly steady, worse when its hot) to heroin (currently at epidemic proportions), the challenges have varied. But Martin and the staff at Detroits last not-for-profit hospital have tackled them all. When other civic institutions were leaving Detroit, along with prosperity and civic order, Henry Ford hospital stayed to care for the sick.

    Even in what may be the most desperate city in the US, if you have a heart attack, medicine has reached a level of sophistication where no fewer than 14 people will work to keep you alive if you reach the hospital, regardless of your ability to pay. As healthcare in the US continues to change, namely in the battle over government run and administered insurance, it makes sense to take a look at one of Americas most august and storied hospitals and their staff for insight and guidance.

    One of the best things about Henry Ford is, if the guys homeless, and theyre having the same symptoms as the mayor, they get the same treatment, Martin said one evening, finishing an interrupted thought from the ER. To the people that do it, its not that remarkable. Its the way it should be done. In my opinion, everyone should have healthcare

    Hes interrupted.

    Another alarm, another patient, another life in his hands.

    Slight and physically unimposing, Martin is an accomplished cyclist as well as a superbly talented doctor. He often rides his bicycle to work from his house in Grosse Pointe, an inner-ring suburb of Detroit. He has also ridden it clear across the country.

    I rode from Oregon to New Hampshire, he says at dinner one night, characteristically humble about his accomplishments. It took him only 50 days.

    Formerly the head of the ER department and now semi-retired, Martin has the particular characteristic of bowing his head and smiling sheepishly when someone praises his long list of accomplishments. He commands a staff of hundreds at the apex of a hierarchy resembling the military, yet when speaking with patients he says things like belly rather than stomach, and sick instead of injured.

    As he speaks, he guides hospital beds through doors with the relaxed demeanor that comes after 30 years removing bullets, suturing knife wounds and watching people live or die on his watch. His countenance on the whole suggests a retired and beloved elementary school principal more than a man who has been up to the forearms inside a chest cavity due to axe wounds.

    He has thousands of lives to his name, I hear as I make my way through the corridors of the dignified red-brick hospital.

    He just walks on water.

    I would follow him anywhere.

    In the triage bay, Martin explains the workings of a sonography machine, while a woman in ripped jeans and an orange T-shirt yells at a rubber-gloved nurse. Each bed is separated by a curtain, but the woman in orange has ripped hers open. She entered the ER complaining of chest pains and is drunk. The patients shouts become insults and the nurse moves to restrain her.

    Fuck you, you fucking faggot, the woman screams at man. I know my rights.

    A scrum of police officers, EMTs and technicians move to help the struggling nurse, but the womans cries and insults only become louder and more full of pain, her struggles more ferocious. Martin stops his demonstration and steps into the middle of the crowd, waving everyones hands off the woman.

    In less time than it takes to hand-wash a coffee cup, and with mysterious grace, Martin has defused the situation. As he checks the womans heart with a stethoscope, he explains exactly what is about to happen to her the nurses will hook her up to an EKG machine, among other procedures and gets the woman to lie down, still muttering at the original nurse but pliable.

    Martin seems unfazed and almost joyous through the ordeal. He leads with quiet slyness, kindness and confidence and 30 years of experience practicing those traits. When I was young, I thought: Im going to go to medical school, Im going to become a doctor, and Ill make enough money so that I can live in the woods in Vermont on a farm and Im going to work two days a week, he said one evening. I never in a million years pictured myself in the inner city, of any city, working in the situation I do.

    Drs Manu Malhotra and Gerald Martin joke during a shift in the emergency room. Photograph: Bryan Mitchell for the Guardian

    Henry Ford hospital has 877 beds, with 77 of them in the emergency room. Its intensive care unit holds more patients than any other in Michigan, and its emergency department is the third-busiest based on volume. More than 100,000 people visit the ER at Henry Ford every year.

    The ER itself is split into four categories, numbered one through four, with category one holding the most acute patients. Martin is on this rotation today: a man who took too many seizure meds and is in a coma; a heavy user who shows up to ERs across the city multiple days a week because he is lonely or mentally ill; a woman who has been in an auto accident and is wearing a neck brace.

    Martin touches each in turn, with ungloved hands. The physical proximity in the ER isnt exactly cramped, but it is close.

    Ah, some residents always use gloves, but I dont really mind, he says matter-of-factly when washing his hands between patients. Next, he attends a woman with acute diabetes.

    Oh, your hands are cold, winces the woman.

    Cold hands, warm heart, the doctor replies.

    She laughs, and Martin asks the woman about the nurse taking her blood.

    She was great! She got [the needle] in on the first try!

    We usually call her five-poke Sarah, Martin jokes.

    They do not! the nurse laughs.

    According to the hospital, statistically at least one of these patients is on Medicaid, the healthcare program run by both federal and state governments for low-income Americans. Of Henry Fords patients, 18% are on Medicaid or a Medicaid HMO, and another 43% are on Medicare, the federal program for seniors.

    One of the cornerstones of the Republicans new American Health Care Act is a plan to begin rolling back the increased support that the Affordable Care Act gave states for Medicare expansion, starting in 2020.

    Henry Ford hospital, one of Michigans busiest hospitals. Photograph: Bryan Mitchell for the Guardian

    Im a big supporter of the Affordable Care Act for its principles and policies, Wright Lassiter III, the president and CEO of Henry Ford Health System, tells me in his office. Its less gaudy than I would have expected for the head of a $6bn organization, possibly owing to the hospitals not-for-profit nature. But its still spacious and stately.

    I think our principle problem in society, with healthcare, is that as a society we havent decided yet, like every other industrialized country, that every citizen should have healthcare and that makes our society better.

    He pauses for effect.

    Now, how you pay for it or who provides it is it a tax credit or a block grant, or is it a government subsidy, or whatever we can debate that on political lines or on economic development lines or on social justice lines or on a number of fronts. But our fundamental problem is were still debating what most countries believe is a truism, which is: everyone should have healthcare insurance.

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA), colloquially known as Obamacare, cut the number of uninsured people in America by about two-fifths. It increased the number of insured individuals by approximately 20 million, with 30 or so million left uninsured. In Michigan alone, more than 630,000 became insured through the laws Medicare expansion and another 345,000 or so via the healthcare exchanges. Its about one in every 10 people in Michigan.

    What is less clear is what effect that has had on the overall health of the states population and the health of its urban hospitals. Nearly everyone interviewed for this story agreed that the ACA hadnt had time to reach equilibrium, as Manu Malhotra, associate chief medical officer, put it while sitting next to Martin in the ER.

    Predicted drastic spikes in ER visits havent come to pass, but neither have drastically increased revenues for hospitals such as Henry Ford. The equation has now simply changed in complex ways, and hasnt had time to bear economic or medical fruit or fail to do so. There simply hasnt been enough time to tell.

    Society at large, and people with the ability to pay, currently already shoulder the burden of providing the cost of healthcare coverage to the people who are unable to afford it and do that in the most expensive and inefficient way possible by providing care only in emergency situations, Malhotra said. Finding a better way to do that is essential, and the Affordable Care Act is the only cohesive effort that weve seen on the national level.

    A hospital staff member holds up a bullet removed from a patient in the ER at Henry Ford hospital. Photograph: Bryan Mitchell for the Guardian

    On a Wednesday, Malhotra and Martin are deciding whether to remove the bullets from a man who has been shot multiple times. Contrary to televisual opinion, bullets are generally left inside the body unless they actively present a danger to the patient or interfere with future medical procedures.

    They decide one bullet will need to be removed, so a screening can be performed, while the others will stay. All the residents are out taking tests this day, so Martin will perform the procedure himself.

    Get the metal pan! Martin jokes, aping the Hollywood convention of a gruff doctor dropping each slug into a brass surgical tray with a solid plink.

    Martin pantomimes the motion, holing up his fingers dramatically, and Malhotra chimes in with a ding! when the phantom bullet falls. Everyone laughs.

    We have 50 of those pans in the back, he says to me, clearly kidding, but the joke belies the typical gallows humor used as a coping method of those cops, firefighters, soldiers who work with death daily.

    The children are the most difficult, Martin tells me later, shaking his head. I like joking around, but when someones sick its no time for joking. You need to buckle down and know what to do and take care of the patient. Put the patient first.

    A woman sits with her elderly mother, who wears a breathing mask. She has a degenerative nervous system disease and will one day stop breathing, her mind fully alert, because her brain can no longer tell her diaphragm to contract.

    The same day, another family, in the corner and speaking a foreign language, huddles around a matriarch quite literally kept alive by machines. Although this person they love cannot communicate with them, they cannot in turn let her go.

    A scared teenager has a dislocated shoulder. A hilarious elder gentleman tells anyone within earshot his historic life story as he lies in bed with chest pains. A professional woman is terrified by a mysterious rash. Martin inspects them all with the care of a good dad scrutinizing scrapes and bruises on a calming child.

    The national healthcare battle seems to be waged largely with swords of political ideology and money rather than bodies and souls, and the man lying with bullets lodged inside his frame can seem an afterthought. They say a single death is a tragedy and a million is a statistic. Some of those statistics, the faces and the names and the bodies behind the giant numbers thrown around by politicians, are sitting in the ER today.

    I can feel the bullet in the skin right here, Martin tells the gunshot victim. (As with every other patient in this story, US law protects the privacy of medical information and thus prohibits providing identifying details of patients or their situations.) Im going clean it off, numb it up and pull the bullet out.

    As he cleans the wound on the mans forearm, a circular bruise about the size of a basketball with a small slit in the center, the aural landscape in the ER is lush. Beeps and blips and alarms and dozens of voices are overpowered only by the heart monitor tracking the mans pulse, a steady ding, ding, ding.

    The procedure takes about two minutes. The blips from the heart monitor become faster as the doctor places a needle loaded with numbing drugs inside the mans forearm DING DING DING and faster still when the doctor expertly digs around in his body for the bullet DINGDINGDINGDINGDINGDING.

    Is it out? the patient asks.

    Martin drops the bullet in a plastic pan with a hollow thud. The bullet appears to be .45 caliber, with bits of flesh and blood attached, jagged and mushroomed from the impact. If not for the rifling inscribed on the body, it might look like a moon rock or a miniature bonsai tree. Almost all bullets, regardless of provenance, go to the police.

    Can they reuse it? Martin jokes, as he whisks on to the next person.

    The man in bed is apparently relieved the procedure is over, the hands of the doctor having preformed their work perfectly. His heart rate has slowed back to a steady, plodding rhythm.

    The American Health Care Act keeps certain popular provisions of the ACA, such as guaranteed coverage for those with pre-existing conditions and allowing children to stay on their parents plans until theyre 26 years old.

    It does away with others, including the individual mandate, or forced enrollment, and many of the taxes levied on the wealthy to pay for the program. Starting in 2020, the bill proposes to reduce the planned Medicaid expansion and, over time, in effect eliminate it.

    Roundly criticized from nearly every corner of the political spectrum, the bill will undoubtedly go though many revisions, and the House speaker, Paul Ryan, has promised that this is only the first step in a Republican overhaul of healthcare. What does seem clear is that the bill will do little to further reduce the number of Americans without health insurance approximately 30 million and will probably reduce the number currently insured.

    The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office has put the number at 24 million fewer people insured by 2026. And although the figure is notoriously difficult to predict with scientific rigor, as creating control groups in giant healthcare studies of this nature would be unethical, two Harvard Medical School professors put the number of deaths directly due to an ACA repeal at 43,000 people each year.

    As the Republican healthcare bill and, more generally, healthcare in the US is debated, the broader question outside of the minutiae of individual bills and policies is: how, as a society, do we define success in healthcare reform?

    Is it measured by how many individuals receive healthcare? Or how comprehensive the coverage is? Is it how much money is saved on the national level, or how many people no longer have to declare bankruptcy because of medical bills?

    Is it about the patient with the blonde braids laying before Martin on the operating table? She has been dropped off by a good Samaritan who found her unresponsive and lying in a gutter. Rushed into the recess room by nurses, the patient is nearly catatonic and slipping further into herself, barely able to answer questions, finally drifting completely out. One of the residents lifts her hands and they stay as they were placed, stiff, like when a dog lies on its back. Doctors yell to her. Nothing.

    Watch this, Martin tells me.

    A resident loads clear fluid into a needle and injects it into the woman.

    Fifteen seconds, nothing.

    Thirty seconds.


    Sixty seconds.

    The woman snaps out of bed and opens her eyes, absurdly conscious and alive, wonderfully lucid. Shes just received a dose of Narcan, a drug to reverse heroin overdoses. The result is stunning and immediate, as if shes arisen from the dead.

    Where am I? she asks.

    Youre in a hospital, the doctor replies.

    Read more: www.theguardian.com

    No Car Is Totally Stimulated In America

    WASHINGTON President-elect Donald Trump likes sending mean tweets that single out automobile companies for not attaining vehicles in the United States, but there is no such thing as a altogether American-made auto.

    While there are many automobiles that are ultimately assembled in the U.S ., none are composed entirely of American-made parts, thanks to supply chains that go back and forth across national borders.

    Federal law requires automakers to disclose the percentage of North American content in a vehicle. The most “American” cars, in agreement with the government’s data for 2016, are the Chevrolet Traverse, the GMC Acadia and the Honda Accord, each of which scored 80 percent.

    “When was the last car produced that was 100 percentage stimulated in America? it might have been the Model T, ” said Frank DuBois, a supply chain expert and professor at American University’s Kogod School of Business. “Nothing is 100 percent stimulated in America.”

    Trump has picked on automakers as high-profile examples of firms changing production to other countries instead of maintaining it all in the U.S ., a phenomenon Trump blamed on trade bargains like the North American Free Trade Agreement. But the various components of cars and trucks come from all over the place it’s not as simple as “made in the USA” or “not induced in the USA.” For instance, you could buy an ostensibly Japanese Honda CR-V that was assembled in Mexico with 70 percent American parts.

    Along with a percentage, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data indicates the country where vehicles are assembled and the country of origin for the engine and the transmission. Federal law necessitates manufacturers to stick the info on a label for the benefit of vehicle shoppers.

    DuBois said the federal automobile content info has some shortcomings, including that it lets automakers round up and even count Canadian parts as American. So DuBois sets out his own listing, which builds on the federal data and is called the Kogod Made in America Auto Index.

    Because it includes criteria on the locating of a vehicle’s growth and its company’s corporate headquarters, the Kogod list dedicates the Honda Accord a lower rank in favor of autos made by American companies. Three GM vehicles share the top spot: the Buick Enclave, the Chevy Traverse and the GMC Acadia.

    This week, Donald Trump attacked GM and Toyota on Twitter for attaining certain cars abroad, but the president-elect flubbed facts in each case. On Tuesday he chided GM for selling a Mexican-made version of the Chevy Cruze in the U.S ., even though the vast majority of Cruzes sold here last year were attained in Ohio. The automobile scores about 60 percent on both the government and DuBois’ lists.

    On Thursday Trump blasted Toyota for allegedly building a Corolla plant in Baja, Mexico. The new plant will actually be in Guanajuato; the company announced the move in 2015 and said it was changing production to Mexico from Canada , not the U.S.

    “Toyota has been part of the culture fabric in the U.S. for virtually 60 years, ” the company said this week. “Production volume or employment in the U.S. will not lessening as a result of our new plant in Guanajuato, Mexico announced in April 2015. ”

    Read more: www.huffingtonpost.com

    Detroit Is Stomping Silicon Valley in the Self-Driving Car Race

    Tesla sits in themiddle. It’s strong on “vision”( that’s Elon Musk for you) and go-to-market strategy( it’s already offering semi-autonomous autoes ). But Navigant knocks Teslaon staying power( it’s a young player in a brutal industry ), marketings, marketing, and distribution( Tesla can’t operate in every state ), and technology( because Musk won’t use the expensive lidar tech experts say is necessary for full independence ).

    Now, this report comes with a whopper of a caveat: These are early days in a race that will unfold over years, if not decades. Every company listed could shore up its weaknesses with smart partnerships or acquisitions, and jump to the front of the pack. Ford ranked sixth in the 2015 version of this study; Uber wasn’t on it at all.” These[ outcomes] are by no means final ,” Abuelsamid says.

    Rankingmay one day change, but they serve as a reminder that it takes more than clever tech to change the world–and that muscle still matters.

    Read more:

    See the Evolution of the Famed Porsche 911 in 7 Photos

    The Porsche 911, like the Ford Mustang and Chevrolet Corvette, has pulled off the neat trick of remaining thoroughly modern yet utterly timeless. The latest models look a lot like the car that rolled into the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1963, making it instantly recognizable even to people with no interest in cars.

    You could fill a small library with the books written about the venerable sports car from Stuttgart, and the newest is Gestalten’sPorsche 911: The Ultimate Sportscar as Culture Icon by the almost perfectly named Ulf Poschardt. It details, in beautiful detail, the evolution of the 911.

    The car’s iconic status belies its humble origins with the VW Beetle, which Ferdinand Porsche designed. The Beetle begat the Porsche 956, which Poschardt describes asa “functionalist manifesto.” It emphasized aerodynamics, minimal weight, and practicality—characteristics his grandson, Ferdinand “Butzi” Porsche, emphasized when he set out to build a more comfortable, more powerful vehicle. That car, the 911, featuredtwo doors, four seats, and a roof that sloped from the windshield to the taillights, nearly covering the engine out back.

    The 911 didn’t get much attention at the Frankfurt Motor Show, according to Poschardt, but the design proved a winner. The details have changed in the five decades since, but the fundamental lines are just as beautiful today as they were then.

    Read more: